Christian Theology and Apologetics

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A Response to Dr. Cummings’ “Peter and Paul”

saints.peter.and.paul.v2A Response to “Peter and Paul”

In his short article—Peter and Paul—Dr. Cummings makes a number of claims in the Macon Telegraph Opinion section I think deserve an adequate response. Read more…


Jesus, the Reasonable, Reason for the Season

Christmas is almost upon us this year and no other holiday during the year is the spiritual battle more apparent. Courts are ejecting nativity scenes from their lawns due to the pressure of an ever-escalating Post-Christian America. It is at this time of year that “Freethinker” groups attack anything and everything Christmas. They posit that God does not exist and attempt to convince others of their version of “truth” as well. Many unsophisticated Christians have fallen for their tactics, which are amateurish at best. Read more…

Pharaoh of the Exodus

ahmoseII-hWho was the Pharaoh of the Exodus? Many have attempted to answer this question throughout the years and it is the goal of this research to also attempt an answer to one of the most eluding questions surrounding this period in time. There are several theories pertaining to whom this pharaoh could have been and each has compelling evidence in their favor. Read more…

My Leadership Philosophy



Throughout Scripture there are numerous examples of excellent leadership. These examples show us how to live a God fearing life and be an inspiration to others. These great leaders modeled the way for all believers who would come to call Christ, King. Of these leaders some have been of profound influence on my own life and leadership philosophy. Read more…

Charisma Through the Ages

Charisma Through the Ages



Since the beginnings of the modern Pentecostal and Charismatic movements, there has been an onslaught of attacks from those who hold to other views regarding the gifts of the Holy Spirit. It is the purpose of this paper to delve into the teaching of the early church and uncover what their beliefs was regarding the various gifts of the Holy Spirit. This will be a systematic approach in regards to the biblical data and a historical study on the letters from the early church fathers after the death of the original Apostles of the Church and up until modern times. Read more…

Failure to equip.

In 1 Samuel 17:38-39 we see the failure of a leader to equip his follower. King Saul did not know David well; He did not know that David could not fight in this heavy armor. In fact Saul did not know David could fight at all; Saul stated, “You are not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him; for you are but a youth while he has been a warrior from his youth.” This highlights a few things about Saul’s failure to equip David. Firstly, Saul did not know David very well. He was unaware of David’s capabilities, sure David told Saul of some of his abilities, but outside of that information, Saul knew next to nothing; if he had known David’s capabilities, he would have known that the armor was useless to David.

Secondly, Saul was trying to export his own philosophy of war to David. David had never been in a military campaign; he was a youthful shepherd, not a warrior, at least not yet. Saul was trying to give him his own weapons of war that he had learned which David was unfamiliar with. David said it himself, “I cannot walk with these, for I have not tested them.”

Thirdly, Saul did not listen to David. David told Saul that he killed both a lion and a bear while defending his sheep. Apparently David had killed them with his bare hands, but Saul did not recognize this great feat. Saul was too caught up trying to abstain from entering the battle himself to listen. David was confident that God would deliver him, just as he had delivered him before.
Thus, Saul’s failure to equip David came from not knowing his follower, pushing his philosophy onto him, and not listening to him. This was a complete failure to equip David on Saul’s part. Had David been able to wear the armor and fight the way Saul wanted him to, he likely would have been killed if God did not intervene on his behalf. David knew his own strengths and weaknesses; he knew his best chance to defeat Goliath, was by using equipment he was familiar with—shepherd tools.



Cowboys and Shepherds: What Type of Leader are You?

Throughout the Bible there is some 500 references for shepherds as being leaders over flocks of sheep. These shepherds care for their sheep greatly. They ensure they have fresh food by incrementally circling hilly landscape and working the way to the top of the hills. Read more…


In the Old Testament there are two words used for a king. The first is Melek while the second is Nagid.


Nagid is a Hebrew word for ruler that refers to a tribal chief or some lesser ruler accountable to a king. This word was deliberately chosen by the author to denote that the kings (nagid) were under their Lord (Melek). This was vastly different than the other kingdoms surrounding Isreal, where rulers were often considered deities to be worshipped. This also means that what we perceive as a monarchy was actually a theocracy ruled by God Himself and oversaw by the king at the time. Psalm 78:70-71 says God chose David to Shepherd Jacob His people. This fits the theocracy model and also puts the king in a more paternalistic role because shepherds guard and feed sheep, and sheep do not take care of the shepherd.

2 Samuel 5:2 illustrates the difference between a king and a ruler by showing how Saul was a king, but God was calling David to be a shepherd and ruler of the people. It is interesting to note that Saul was king over Israel only after the people had rejected their true King which was God (1 Sam 10:19). God was restored as King when David became ruler over Israel.



The word melek occurs over 2,000 times in the Hebrew Old Testament and is obscure in its origin. It is common to all Semitic languages and is possibly connected with the Arab root word meaning “to possess.” This term (melek) refers to God and His authority over everything (Psalm 95:3). As mentioned above, Yahweh was king (melek) over King David (nagid) and others. The prophet Samuel recalled that the people rejected God as their King (melek) and wanted another king (nagid) that they could see. The first use of the word melek in the bible is after Moses and the people cross the Red Sea and the people sang a song celebrating and declaring Yahweh as King and Lord forever and ever (Ex 15:18). As stated above the use of the term melek denotes a theocratic government rather than a monarchial one.

From the above information it is clear that David saw himself as subservient to God; David’s job was to rule the way Yahweh wanted him to. There is however another example of a king in the OT that seemed to have everything backwards.  In Ezekiel 28, the prophet mentions a king of Tyre. Most scholars agree this is king Ethbaal III who ruled Tyre during the writing of Ezekiel 28. In the first verse God tells Ezekiel to speak to the prince or ruler of Tyre (nagid) depending on your translation. This depicts the actual ruler as subservient to his king. But just who was Tyre’s king? It certainly wasn’t God; they did not worship Yahweh.


Verses 1-10 of Ezek 28 clearly describe this ruler/prince (nagid) of Tyre as a man who would be overcome by aliens, but beginning in verse 11 the word for king changes to melee. So just who was the king over the prince of Tyre? Here are some details we can take from the text:

1. Seal of perfection (Ezek 28:12)

2. He was in the Garden of Eden (Ezek 28:13)

3. Covered in precious stones (Ezek 28:13)

4. His timbrels and pipes were prepared for him on the day he was created (Ezek 28:13)

5. He is called the annointed Cherub (Ezek 28:14)

6. He was on the Holy Mountain of God (Ezek 28:14)

7. He was perfect until iniquity was found in Him (Ezek 28:15)

8. He was cast from the Mountain of God (Ezek 28:16)

Clearly this king was not a human being. Notice how Ezekiel states that this king was an anointed cherub and was present in the Garden of Eden. This king was considered the seal of perfection until iniquity was found in him (Ezek 28:15). This king over Tyre has to be no other than Satan himself. Satan fell into sin by his pride (2 Timothy 3:6). This anointed cherub fell into sin by being prideful just as the prince of Tyre had been. Ezekiel was drawing a parallel between the two and also making a statement regarding who the true king of Tyre was.


I said all of the above to ask this simple question; who is your King? Most of us will not pause to say, Jesus! I’m asking you to be honest for a second; Just who is your King? If one says Jesus is their King or Lord, then it follows that this person should do as Jesus says; He is King after all, isn’t He? How much time do you spend each day serving the King? Do you read His word everyday? Do you pray everyday? Do you spread the Gospel every chance you get? If your answer to these is no, then there is a chance that Jesus is not your King after all. You see, a lot of us like to do lip service in Christianity; we act holy and give great advice to others seeking godly council, but when it comes to our private relationship with God we fall very short sometimes. To be clear no amount of praying, reading or spreading the Gospel is going to get you into Heaven; It takes faith in Him, not works. So just think about it for a second; are you really serving Him? Do you really know Him? If not I invite you to read the Gospels and get to know Jesus and let Him reveal himself to you through the pages of His Holy Word. Let Him be King (Melek) over your life!

The Difficulty of Reaching Millennials.

It seems every week there is an article on a Christian news website describing the difficulties of reaching millennials. There are lots of theories as to why they are so difficult to reach. Writers, pastors, and laymen, theorize what makes this young generation so skeptical of Christianity. Millenials have proven themselves to be difficult to reach. A lot of the focus thus far has been placed on the youth churches are attempting to reach; I’ve heard things such as, “they live on Facebook,” or “they just don’t care.” It seems a great deal of the burden on reaching this generation is placed on the ones to be reached, the millennial’s, while those supposed to be reaching out to them are apathetic. Read more…

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